# 3D Theory - Representing 3D shapes in 2D window

In addition to full 3D views with perspective projections the program also has simpler 2D windows using Orthographic projection. This is to allow CAD type applications and applications where full 3D rendering is not required or is not supported.

To do this we need to represent 3D shapes, such as a cylinder, by using 2D shapes such as ellipse and lines.

We want to find the furthest and nearest points to the translation of the top to the 2D plane.

So we need to find the minima and maxima of:

f = (v - topv)+(u - topu)

subject to the constraint that:

g(u,v) = x+z- r= 0

we also know

u = m00 x + m01 y + m02 z + m03

v = m10 x + m11 y + m12 z + m13

g / u = ( g / x )( x / u ) + ( g / y )( y / u )

g / v = ( g / x )( x / v ) + ( g / y )( y / v )

sustitute following values in above

g / x = 2x

g / y = 2y

x / u = 1/m00

y / u = 1/m01

x / v = 1/m10

y / v = 1/m11

therefore:

g / u = 2x / m00 + 2y / m01

g / v = 2x / m10 + 2y / m11

expanding out f = (v - topv)+(u - topu) gives:

f = v - 2 v topv + topv) + u - 2 u topu + topu)

f / u = 2u - 2 topu

f / v = 2v - 2 topv

using Lagrange

(2u - 2 topu) = (2x / m00 + 2y / m01)

(2v - 2 topv) = (2x / m10 + 2y / m11)

therefore

-= (u - topu) / (x/m00 + z/m02) = (v - topv) / (x/m10 + z/m12)

(m00 x + m01 y + m02 z + m03 - topu) * (x/m10 + z/m12) = (m10 x + m11 y + m12 z + m13 - topv) * (x/m00 + z/m02)

(m00/m10) x+ (m02/m10) x z + ( m01 y + m03 - topu)x/m10 + (m00/m12) x z + (m02/m12) z + ( m01 y + m03 - topu)z/m12 =

(m10/m00 x + m12/m00 x z + ( m11 y + m13 - topv) x/m00 + m10/m00 x z + m12/m00 z + ( m11 y + m13 - topv) z/m02

(m00/m10 - m10/m00) x+ (m02/m10 + m00/m12 - m12/m00 - m10/m00) x z + ( m01/m10 y + m03/m10 - topu/m10 - m11/m00 y - m13/m00 + topv/m00)x

+ (m02/m12 - m12/m00) z + ( m01/m12 y + m03/m12 - topu/m12 - m11/m02 y - m13/m02 + topv/m02)z =0

combine this with:

x+z= r

gives

(m00/m10 - m10/m00) x+ (m02/m10 + m00/m12 - m12/m00 - m10/m00) x sqrt(r- x) + ( m01/m10 y + m03/m10 - topu/m10 - m11/m00 y - m13/m00 + topv/m00)x

+ (m02/m12 - m12/m00) (r- x) + ( m01/m12 y + m03/m12 - topu/m12 - m11/m02 y - m13/m02 + topv/m02)sqrt(r- x) =0

This is an equation containing x and all the other variables are constants

so in theory its solvable, but I dont know how?

 Attempt to solve this in terms of u and v, but I don't think this will work becase the 3d to 2d transform is not reversable. constraints: g(u,v) = x+z-r where: x = I00 u + I01 v + I02 y = I10 u + I11 v + I12 z = I20 u + I21 v + I22 not sure we can use this? can't derive x,y,z form screen coordinates! g(u,v) = (I00 u + I01 v + I02)+( I20 u + I21 v + I22)- r=0 expanding gives: g(u,v) = I00u + 2 I00 I01 v u + I01v + I02+ 2 I00 I02 u + 2 I01 I02 + I20u + 2 I20 I21 v u + I21v + I22+ 2 I20 I22 u + 2 I21 I22 - r=0 partial differentials are: g/u = 2 (I00 + I20)u + 2v (I00 I01 + I20 I21) + 2 (I00 I02 + I20 I22) g/v = 2 (I01 + I21)v + 2u (I00 I01 + I20 I21) + 2 (I01 I02 + I21 I22)   f/u = 2u - 2 topu f/v = 2 v - 2 topv using Lagrange 2u - 2 topu +( 2 (I00 + I20)u + 2v (I00 I01 + I20 I21) + 2 (I00 I02 + I20 I22)) = 0 2 v - 2 topv +( 2 (I01 + I21)v + 2u (I00 I01 + I20 I21) + 2 (I01 I02 + I21 I22)) = 0 divide both sides by 2: u - topu +( (I00 + I20)u + v (I00 I01 + I20 I21) + (I00 I02 + I20 I22)) =0 v - topv +( (I01 + I21)v + u (I00 I01 + I20 I21) + (I01 I02 + I21 I22)) =0 1/=( (I00 + I20)u + v (I00 I01 + I20 I21) + (I00 I02 + I20 I22)) / topu -u 1/=( (I01 + I21)v + u (I00 I01 + I20 I21) + (I01 I02 + I21 I22)) / topv -v   ( (I00 + I20)u + v (I00 I01 + I20 I21) + (I00 I02 + I20 I22)) / topu -u = ( (I01 + I21)v + u (I00 I01 + I20 I21) + (I01 I02 + I21 I22)) / topv -v   ( (I00 + I20)u + v (I00 I01 + I20 I21) + (I00 I02 + I20 I22)) * topv -v = ( (I01 + I21)v + u (I00 I01 + I20 I21) + (I01 I02 + I21 I22)) * topu -u   (I00 + I20)uv + v (I00 I01 + I20 I21) + (I00 I02 + I20 I22) v- (I00 + I20)u* topv - v (I00 I01 + I20 I21)* topv - (I00 I02 + I20 I22) * topv = (I01 + I21)vu + u (I00 I01 + I20 I21) + (I01 I02 + I21 I22)u - (I01 + I21)v* topu - u (I00 I01 + I20 I21)* topu - (I01 I02 + I21 I22)* topu   (I00 + I20-I01 - I21)uv + v (I00 I01 + I20 I21) + (I00 I02 + I20 I22) v- (I00 + I20)u* topv - v (I00 I01 + I20 I21)* topv - (I00 I02 + I20 I22) * topv = u (I00 I01 + I20 I21) + (I01 I02 + I21 I22)u - (I01 + I21)v* topu - u (I00 I01 + I20 I21)* topu - (I01 I02 + I21 I22)* topu combine with: g(u,v) = I00u + 2 I00 I01 v u + I01v + I02+ 2 I00 I02 u + 2 I01 I02 + I20u + 2 I20 I21 v u + I21v + I22+ 2 I20 I22 u + 2 I21 I22 - r=0 gives: I give up

Where I can, I have put links to Amazon for books that are relevant to the subject, click on the appropriate country flag to get more details of the book or to buy it from them.

Graphics Gems - Lots of useful algorithms and snippets of theory - These are reference books rather than books you read from cover to cover. If you can afford it they are worth having on the shelf (I wish I could!) They might just solve a problem which could otherwise take days to work out.

Graphics Gems II

Graphic Gems III: IBM Version (with diskette)

Graphics Gems IV: IBM Version (with Diskette)

Graphics Gems V: IBM Version (with disk)

Commercial Software Shop

Where I can, I have put links to Amazon for commercial software, not directly related to this site, but related to the subject being discussed, click on the appropriate country flag to get more details of the software or to buy it from them.

 Dark Basic Professional Edition - It is better to get this professional edition This is a version of basic designed for building games, for example to rotate a cube you might do the following: make object cube 1,100 for x=1 to 360 rotate object 1,x,x,0 next x Game Programming with Darkbasic - book for above software

This site may have errors. Don't use for critical systems.