Music - 'Rules' writing tunes

Structure

Melody

End of Phrase - Cadence

chord V -> I (perfect cadence)


Harmony

Augmented 2nd between 6th and 7th degrees of the scale is best avoided.

Accidentals should only be introduced in the melody for melodic reasons, not to make harmony easier.


Cadences

Harmonising

1) end on cadence (v-I)

2) root position - best for all cadences

- always use for last chord

3) enter base note first

4) 3rd more important than 5th (determines if major/minor)

5) good liner movement

6) melody rises (VII -> I)

7) Additional rules for minor key

- Augmented 2nd between 6th and 7th degrees of the scale best avoided

- Accidentals should only be introduced in the melody for melodic

reasons, not to make harmony easier

Perfect cadence - Full stop

o

------------------------------------------------

o

------o--------------------------------------- leading note usually

*

C ------*--------------------------------------- rises to the tonic

------#--------o-------------------------------- bass falls a 5th

---------------o-------------------------------- or rises a4th

-#-

V --> I

Interrupted cadence - colon or question mark

------------------------------------------------

o

------o---------------------------------------

o

C ------o---------------------------------------

o

------o-----------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------

V --> VI (or any other chord)

Plagal cadence - full stop

o

------------------------------------------------

o

---------------------------------------------- general effect is of

* * <-tonic can be held

C ---------------------------------------------- all notes (except the

o

---------------o------------------------------ tonic which can be

#

---------------o------------------------------ held) falling

-#- bass falls a 4th

IV --> I

Imperfect cadence - comma

-o- ---

o

---------o------------------------------------

o

---------o--------------------o---------------

o o

C ------------------------------o---------------

o o

-----o------------------------o---------------

o o

-----o----------------------------------------

o

-o-

I or II or IV --> V (Ib->V very common)

22


Harmonic minor scale starting on C

------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------

o

s ----------------------o-----------------------

t o

t ---------------o------------------------------

t o

s -------o---------------------------------------

t o

t -o-

I II III IV V VI VII I

t s t t s t+s s


Harmonic minor scale starting on A

o

#o

t --------------------o---------------------------

t o

s ----------o-----------------------------------

t o

s ----o-----------------------------------------

t o

t ----------------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------------

I II III IV V VI VII I

t s t t s t+s s


'Rules' writing tunes

music relies on:

- repetition - contrast


* Scheme of phrases - AABA

* finish - cadence

-------------------------------------

Ends:

 


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